crypt

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

cryptOne-way string hashing

Description

string crypt ( string $str [, string $salt ] )

crypt() will return a hashed string using the standard Unix DES-based algorithm or alternative algorithms that may be available on the system.

The salt parameter is optional. However, crypt() creates weak password without salt. PHP 5.6 or later raise E_NOTICE error without it. Make sure specify strong enough salt for better security.

password_hash() uses strong hash, generates strong salt, applies proper rounds automatically. password_hash() is simple crypt() wrapper and compatible with existing password hashes. Use of password_hash() is encouraged.

Some operating systems support more than one type of hash. In fact, sometimes the standard DES-based algorithm is replaced by an MD5-based algorithm. The hash type is triggered by the salt argument. Prior to 5.3, PHP would determine the available algorithms at install-time based on the system's crypt(). If no salt is provided, PHP will auto-generate either a standard two character (DES) salt, or a twelve character (MD5), depending on the availability of MD5 crypt(). PHP sets a constant named CRYPT_SALT_LENGTH which indicates the longest valid salt allowed by the available hashes.

The standard DES-based crypt() returns the salt as the first two characters of the output. It also only uses the first eight characters of str, so longer strings that start with the same eight characters will generate the same result (when the same salt is used).

On systems where the crypt() function supports multiple hash types, the following constants are set to 0 or 1 depending on whether the given type is available:

  • CRYPT_STD_DES - Standard DES-based hash with a two character salt from the alphabet "./0-9A-Za-z". Using invalid characters in the salt will cause crypt() to fail.
  • CRYPT_EXT_DES - Extended DES-based hash. The "salt" is a 9-character string consisting of an underscore followed by 4 bytes of iteration count and 4 bytes of salt. These are encoded as printable characters, 6 bits per character, least significant character first. The values 0 to 63 are encoded as "./0-9A-Za-z". Using invalid characters in the salt will cause crypt() to fail.
  • CRYPT_MD5 - MD5 hashing with a twelve character salt starting with $1$
  • CRYPT_BLOWFISH - Blowfish hashing with a salt as follows: "$2a$", "$2x$" or "$2y$", a two digit cost parameter, "$", and 22 characters from the alphabet "./0-9A-Za-z". Using characters outside of this range in the salt will cause crypt() to return a zero-length string. The two digit cost parameter is the base-2 logarithm of the iteration count for the underlying Blowfish-based hashing algorithmeter and must be in range 04-31, values outside this range will cause crypt() to fail. Versions of PHP before 5.3.7 only support "$2a$" as the salt prefix: PHP 5.3.7 introduced the new prefixes to fix a security weakness in the Blowfish implementation. Please refer to » this document for full details of the security fix, but to summarise, developers targeting only PHP 5.3.7 and later should use "$2y$" in preference to "$2a$".
  • CRYPT_SHA256 - SHA-256 hash with a sixteen character salt prefixed with $5$. If the salt string starts with 'rounds=<N>$', the numeric value of N is used to indicate how many times the hashing loop should be executed, much like the cost parameter on Blowfish. The default number of rounds is 5000, there is a minimum of 1000 and a maximum of 999,999,999. Any selection of N outside this range will be truncated to the nearest limit.
  • CRYPT_SHA512 - SHA-512 hash with a sixteen character salt prefixed with $6$. If the salt string starts with 'rounds=<N>$', the numeric value of N is used to indicate how many times the hashing loop should be executed, much like the cost parameter on Blowfish. The default number of rounds is 5000, there is a minimum of 1000 and a maximum of 999,999,999. Any selection of N outside this range will be truncated to the nearest limit.

Note:

As of PHP 5.3.0, PHP contains its own implementation and will use that if the system lacks of support for one or more of the algorithms.

Parameters

str

The string to be hashed.

Caution

Using the CRYPT_BLOWFISH algorithm, will result in the str parameter being truncated to a maximum length of 72 characters. This is only a concern if are using the same salt to hash strings with this algorithm that are over 72 bytes in length, as this will result in those hashes being identical.

salt

An optional salt string to base the hashing on. If not provided, the behaviour is defined by the algorithm implementation and can lead to unexpected results.

Return Values

Returns the hashed string or a string that is shorter than 13 characters and is guaranteed to differ from the salt on failure.

Changelog

Version Description
5.6.0 Raise E_NOTICE security warning if salt is omitted.
5.3.7 Added $2x$ and $2y$ Blowfish modes to deal with potential high-bit attacks.
5.3.2 Added SHA-256 and SHA-512 crypt based on Ulrich Drepper's » implementation.
5.3.2 Fixed Blowfish behaviour on invalid rounds to return "failure" string ("*0" or "*1"), instead of falling back to DES.
5.3.0 PHP now contains its own implementation for the MD5 crypt, Standard DES, Extended DES and the Blowfish algorithms and will use that if the system lacks of support for one or more of the algorithms.

Examples

Example #1 crypt() examples

<?php
$hashed_password 
crypt('mypassword'); // let the salt be automatically generated

/* You should pass the entire results of crypt() as the salt for comparing a
   password, to avoid problems when different hashing algorithms are used. (As
   it says above, standard DES-based password hashing uses a 2-character salt,
   but MD5-based hashing uses 12.) */
if (crypt($user_input$hashed_password) == $hashed_password) {
   echo 
"Password verified!";
}
?>

Example #2 Using crypt() with htpasswd

<?php
// Set the password
$password 'mypassword';

// Get the hash, letting the salt be automatically generated
$hash crypt($password);
?>

Example #3 Using crypt() with different hash types

<?php
/* These salts are examples only, and should not be used verbatim in your code.
   You should generate a distinct, correctly-formatted salt for each password.
*/
if (CRYPT_STD_DES == 1) {
    echo 
'Standard DES: ' crypt('rasmuslerdorf''rl') . "\n";
}

if (
CRYPT_EXT_DES == 1) {
    echo 
'Extended DES: ' crypt('rasmuslerdorf''_J9..rasm') . "\n";
}

if (
CRYPT_MD5 == 1) {
    echo 
'MD5:          ' crypt('rasmuslerdorf''$1$rasmusle$') . "\n";
}

if (
CRYPT_BLOWFISH == 1) {
    echo 
'Blowfish:     ' crypt('rasmuslerdorf''$2a$07$usesomesillystringforsalt$') . "\n";
}

if (
CRYPT_SHA256 == 1) {
    echo 
'SHA-256:      ' crypt('rasmuslerdorf''$5$rounds=5000$usesomesillystringforsalt$') . "\n";
}

if (
CRYPT_SHA512 == 1) {
    echo 
'SHA-512:      ' crypt('rasmuslerdorf''$6$rounds=5000$usesomesillystringforsalt$') . "\n";
}
?>

The above example will output something similar to:

Standard DES: rl.3StKT.4T8M
Extended DES: _J9..rasmBYk8r9AiWNc
MD5:          $1$rasmusle$rISCgZzpwk3UhDidwXvin0
Blowfish:     $2a$07$usesomesillystringfore2uDLvp1Ii2e./U9C8sBjqp8I90dH6hi
SHA-256:      $5$rounds=5000$usesomesillystri$KqJWpanXZHKq2BOB43TSaYhEWsQ1Lr5QNyPCDH/Tp.6
SHA-512:      $6$rounds=5000$usesomesillystri$D4IrlXatmP7rx3P3InaxBeoomnAihCKRVQP22JZ6EY47Wc6BkroIuUUBOov1i.S5KPgErtP/EN5mcO.ChWQW21

Notes

Note: There is no decrypt function, since crypt() uses a one-way algorithm.

See Also

  • password_hash() - Creates a password hash
  • md5() - Calculate the md5 hash of a string
  • The Mcrypt extension
  • The Unix man page for your crypt function for more information

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 13 notes

up
38
mblaney at gmail dot com
1 year ago
For those wondering, like I did, what the maximum length of the returned hash can be for the purpose of storing it in a database, the answer is:

123 characters.
up
17
solar at openwall dot com
8 years ago
With different password hashing methods supported on different systems and with the need to generate salts with your own PHP code in order to use the more advanced / more secure methods, it takes special knowledge to use crypt() optimally, producing strong password hashes.  Other message digest / hashing functions supported by PHP, such as md5() and sha1(), are really no good for password hashing if used naively, resulting in hashes which may be brute-forced at rates much higher than those possible for hashes produced by crypt().

I have implemented a PHP password hashing framework (in PHP, tested with all of PHP 3, 4, and 5) which hides the complexity from your PHP applications (no need for you to worry about salts, etc.), yet does things in almost the best way possible given the constraints of the available functions.  The homepage for the framework is:

http://www.openwall.com/phpass/

I have placed this code in the public domain, so there are no copyrights or licensing restrictions to worry about.

P.S. I have 10 years of experience in password (in)security and I've developed several other password security tools and libraries.  So most people can feel confident they're getting this done better by using my framework than they could have done it on their own.
up
9
mikey_nich (at) hotmáil . com
7 years ago
Are you using Apache2 on f.i. WinXP and want to create .htpasswd files via php? Then you need to use the APR1-MD5 encryption method. Here is a function for that:

<?php

function crypt_apr1_md5($plainpasswd) {
   
$salt = substr(str_shuffle("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789"), 0, 8);
   
$len = strlen($plainpasswd);
   
$text = $plainpasswd.'$apr1$'.$salt;
   
$bin = pack("H32", md5($plainpasswd.$salt.$plainpasswd));
    for(
$i = $len; $i > 0; $i -= 16) { $text .= substr($bin, 0, min(16, $i)); }
    for(
$i = $len; $i > 0; $i >>= 1) { $text .= ($i & 1) ? chr(0) : $plainpasswd{0}; }
   
$bin = pack("H32", md5($text));
    for(
$i = 0; $i < 1000; $i++) {
       
$new = ($i & 1) ? $plainpasswd : $bin;
        if (
$i % 3) $new .= $salt;
        if (
$i % 7) $new .= $plainpasswd;
       
$new .= ($i & 1) ? $bin : $plainpasswd;
       
$bin = pack("H32", md5($new));
    }
    for (
$i = 0; $i < 5; $i++) {
       
$k = $i + 6;
       
$j = $i + 12;
        if (
$j == 16) $j = 5;
       
$tmp = $bin[$i].$bin[$k].$bin[$j].$tmp;
    }
   
$tmp = chr(0).chr(0).$bin[11].$tmp;
   
$tmp = strtr(strrev(substr(base64_encode($tmp), 2)),
   
"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/",
   
"./0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz");
    return
"$"."apr1"."$".$salt."$".$tmp;
}

?>
up
9
steve at tobtu dot com
1 year ago
To generate salt use mcrypt_create_iv() not mt_rand() because no matter how many times you call mt_rand() it will only have at most 32 bits of entropy. Which you will start seeing salt collisions after about 2^16 users. mt_rand() is seeded poorly so it should happen sooner.

For bcrypt this will actually generate a 128 bit salt:
<?php $salt = strtr(base64_encode(mcrypt_create_iv(16, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM)), '+', '.'); ?>

*** Bike shed ***
The last character in the 22 character salt is 2 bits.
base64_encode() will have these four character "AQgw"
bcrypt will have these four character ".Oeu"

You don't need to do a full translate because they "round" to different characters:
echo crypt('', '$2y$05$.....................A') . "\n";
echo crypt('', '$2y$05$.....................Q') . "\n";
echo crypt('', '$2y$05$.....................g') . "\n";
echo crypt('', '$2y$05$.....................w') . "\n";

$2y$05$......................J2ihDv8vVf7QZ9BsaRrKyqs2tkn55Yq
$2y$05$.....................O/jw2XygQa2.LrIT7CFCBQowLowDP6Y.
$2y$05$.....................eDOx4wMcy7WU.kE21W6nJfdMimsBE3V6
$2y$05$.....................uMMcgjnOELIa6oydRivPkiMrBG8.aFp.
up
6
Marten Jacobs
6 months ago
As I understand it, blowfish is generally seen a secure hashing algorithm, even for enterprise use (correct me if I'm wrong). Because of this, I created functions to create and check secure password hashes using this algorithm, and using the (also deemed cryptographically secure) openssl_random_pseudo_bytes function to generate the salt.

<?php
/*
 * Generate a secure hash for a given password. The cost is passed
 * to the blowfish algorithm. Check the PHP manual page for crypt to
 * find more information about this setting.
 */
function generate_hash($password, $cost=11){
       
/* To generate the salt, first generate enough random bytes. Because
         * base64 returns one character for each 6 bits, the we should generate
         * at least 22*6/8=16.5 bytes, so we generate 17. Then we get the first
         * 22 base64 characters
         */
       
$salt=substr(base64_encode(openssl_random_pseudo_bytes(17)),0,22);
       
/* As blowfish takes a salt with the alphabet ./A-Za-z0-9 we have to
         * replace any '+' in the base64 string with '.'. We don't have to do
         * anything about the '=', as this only occurs when the b64 string is
         * padded, which is always after the first 22 characters.
         */
       
$salt=str_replace("+",".",$salt);
       
/* Next, create a string that will be passed to crypt, containing all
         * of the settings, separated by dollar signs
         */
       
$param='$'.implode('$',array(
               
"2y", //select the most secure version of blowfish (>=PHP 5.3.7)
               
str_pad($cost,2,"0",STR_PAD_LEFT), //add the cost in two digits
               
$salt //add the salt
       
));
      
       
//now do the actual hashing
       
return crypt($password,$param);
}
 
/*
 * Check the password against a hash generated by the generate_hash
 * function.
 */
function validate_pw($password, $hash){
       
/* Regenerating the with an available hash as the options parameter should
         * produce the same hash if the same password is passed.
         */
       
return crypt($password, $hash)==$hash;
}
?>
up
6
jette at nerdgirl dot dk
1 year ago
The crypt() function cant handle plus signs correctly. So if for example you are using crypt in a login function, use urlencode on the password first to make sure that the login procedure can handle any character:

<?php
$user_input
'12+#æ345';
$pass = urlencode($user_input));
$pass_crypt = crypt($pass);

if (
$pass_crypt == crypt($pass, $pass_crypt)) {
  echo
"Success! Valid password";
} else {
  echo
"Invalid password";
}
?>
up
4
kaminski at istori dot com
3 years ago
Here is an expression to generate pseudorandom salt for the CRYPT_BLOWFISH hash type:

<?php $salt = substr(str_replace('+', '.', base64_encode(pack('N4', mt_rand(), mt_rand(), mt_rand(), mt_rand()))), 0, 22); ?>

It is intended for use on systems where mt_getrandmax() == 2147483647.

The salt created will be 128 bits in length, padded to 132 bits and then expressed in 22 base64 characters.  (CRYPT_BLOWFISH only uses 128 bits for the salt, even though there are 132 bits in 22 base64 characters.  If you examine the CRYPT_BLOWFISH input and output, you can see that it ignores the last four bits on input, and sets them to zero on output.)

Note that the high-order bits of the four 32-bit dwords returned by mt_rand() will always be zero (since mt_getrandmax == 2^31), so only 124 of the 128 bits will be pseudorandom.  I found that acceptable for my application.
up
4
harry at simans dot net
2 years ago
I made a nice little wrapper function for crypt():

<?php
function hasher($info, $encdata = false)
{
 
$strength = "08";
 
//if encrypted data is passed, check it against input ($info)
 
if ($encdata) {
    if (
substr($encdata, 0, 60) == crypt($info, "$2a$".$strength."$".substr($encdata, 60))) {
      return
true;
    }
    else {
      return
false;
    }
  }
  else {
 
//make a salt and hash it with input, and add salt to end
 
$salt = "";
  for (
$i = 0; $i < 22; $i++) {
   
$salt .= substr("./ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789", mt_rand(0, 63), 1);
  }
 
//return 82 char string (60 char hash & 22 char salt)
return crypt($info, "$2a$".$strength."$".$salt).$salt;
}
}
?>

This wrapper will accept a string as input and hash it, and output the hash result of the string and salt together, plus the salt added on the end. You can then store that output in a db, and pass it on to the function as the 2nd parameter when you go to verify it, along with the user input or whatever as the first.

Examples:

<?php
$hash
= hasher($userinput);
if (
$hash == hasher($userinput, $hash) {//authed}
?>

Neat huh?
up
2
hotdog (at) gmx (dot) net
8 years ago
WRONG:

$mypassword = "toto";
$smd5_pass = "{SMD5}......." // in openldap

if (preg_match ("/{SMD5}/i", $smd5_pass))
 {
  $encrypted = substr($md5_pass, 6);
  $hash = base64_decode($encrypted);
  $salt = substr($hash,16);
  $mhashed =  mhash(MHASH_MD5, $mypassword . $salt) ;
  $without_salt = explode($salt,$hash_hex);
   if ($without_salt[0] == $mhashed) {
    echo "Password verified <br>";
    } else {
    echo "Password Not verified<br>";
    }
 }

$without_salt = explode($salt,$hash_hex); should be $without_salt = explode($salt,$hash);

RIGHT:

$mypassword = "toto";
$smd5_pass = "{SMD5}......." // in openldap

if (preg_match ("/{SMD5}/i", $smd5_pass))
 {
  $encrypted = substr($md5_pass, 6);
  $hash = base64_decode($encrypted);
  $salt = substr($hash,16);
  $mhashed =  mhash(MHASH_MD5, $mypassword . $salt) ;
  $without_salt = explode($salt,$hash);
   if ($without_salt[0] == $mhashed) {
    echo "Password verified <br>";
    } else {
    echo "Password Not verified<br>";
    }
 }
up
2
Matteo
2 years ago
Password hashing should be done only with crypt and NEVER with SHA* and MD5 or hash(). The fundamental reason is that crypt is designed to be SLOW which is a VERY good thing for password hashing.

It also automatically generate a salt every time which makes pre-computed tables to "decrypt" passwords useless (the generated salt is stored in the returned string for convenience).
up
1
thorhajo at gmail dot com
9 years ago
Here's a little function I wrote to generate MD5 password hashes in the format they're found in /etc/shadow:

function shadow($password)
{
  $hash = '';
  for($i=0;$i<8;$i++)
  {
    $j = mt_rand(0,53);
    if($j<26)$hash .= chr(rand(65,90));
    else if($j<52)$hash .= chr(rand(97,122));
    else if($j<53)$hash .= '.';
    else $hash .= '/';
  }
  return crypt($password,'$1$'.$hash.'$');
}

I've written this so that each character in the a-zA-Z./ set has a 1/54 of a chance of being selected (26 + 26 + 2 = 54), thus being statistically even.
up
0
chris at seccosquared dot com
3 months ago
A great implementation of crypt, that will generate the password and a unique salt used for it for you to easily add the data to your Database.  It is called Encryptor and it is available on github:

http://git.io/mSJqpw
up
-7
mrdaniel619 at gmail dot com
1 year ago
<?php

/*
nice script for creating a hash with random salt
*/

   
function rand_str($length, $charset='ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789')
    {
       
$str = '';
       
$count = strlen($charset);
        while (
$length--) {
           
$str .= $charset[mt_rand(0, $count-1)];
        }
        return
$str;
    }

   
$hash = "";

    if(isset(
$_POST['string']) && !empty($_POST['string']) && is_string($_POST['string']))
    {
       
$salt = rand_str(rand(100,200));
       
       
$hash = crypt($_POST['string'], '$6$rounds=9000$'.$salt.'$');
    }

?>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
        <title></title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>512 Hash</h1>
        <div><?= $hash ?></div>
        <form method ="post">
            <table>
                <tr>
                    <td>
                        <input type ="text"
                               value ="<?php if($hash!== ""){ echo htmlspecialchars($_POST['string']); } ?>"
                               id ="string"
                               name ="string" />
                    </td>
                    <td>
                        <input type ="submit" value ="hash" />
                    </td>
                </tr>
            </table>  
        </form>
    </body>
</html>
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